New to the RC Hobbies? What does buggy, bulkhead, nitro mean in radio control car hobbies? Check out the glossary for remote control cars below.
- """Calling Traffic"" -- "Some tracks have a policy of telling racers that are getting lapped that the leader of the race is coming up behind them. The backmarker is expected to move over and not interfere with the leader and any battles for position. However, some tracks do not have this policy and expect backmarkers to move.
- C Clip --A small washer-like fastener used to hold parts in place. It resembles a letter 'C' with a hole at each end. A C clip is snapped into place in a groove inside a cylinder (such as a shock body) and held in place by its spring tension. Likewise, the most probable spot to find a C clip is in a shock body, holding the seals in place. C clip pliers are required to insert and remove C clips.
- C Hub - Camber Block - Carrier - Hub Carrier --Usually found on models that use only a lower arm with a fixed link, threaded rod or turnbuckle. The C hub is the 'go between guy' for the suspension arm and carrier (hub). The C hub is attached to the suspension arm with horizontal pins, allowing it to move with the arm as the suspension compresses and rebounds. The carrier is attached to the C hub with a kingpin, allowing the carrier to rotate. If viewed from the front, the C hub would resemble a squared off letter 'C', with the carrier cradled inside it. A threaded rod or turnbuckle is attached to the top of the C hub and the chassis, allowing for camber adjustments (hence the term 'camber block'). A C hub is usually used with a steering hub, while uprights are used for the rear.
- Cage --The ring that keeps the balls or rollers evenly spaced inside a bearing assembly. This ensures they are free rolling and don't rub against each other like a couple at Lookout Point.
- Calipers --This is a sliding tool that gives precise measurements. They come in handy for measuring things like; threaded rod or turnbuckle lengths, shock lengths, foam tire diameters, and more. Calipers are a must have for hardcore racers and fabricators. Pick up a set of digital calipers - they are fairly cheap and more precise than dial calipers, not to mention easier to read.
- Camber --Seen from the front and rear of the car, the angle of the tires in relation to the ground; tires that are perfectly perpendicular to the ground (90 degrees) are said to be at 'zero camber'. If the tops of the tires lean towards each other, the tires have negative camber, and if they lean out, the tires have positive camber. As a general rule, never have positive camber, and make sure the camber of, say, your front right wheel equals the camber of your front left wheel (make the camber angles on each axle match). If we were talking about oval racing, the rules would be different, but we're not. Sedan racing, with it's straights, turns and chicanes requires that, among other things, camber angles match. Usually one degree of negative camber on the fronts is good, because you want a good contact patch throughout a turn, and one or two degrees of negative camber on the rear wheels is fine. From there, experiment, one degree at a time.
- Camber Link --Normally made up of a turnbuckle or threaded rod with a ball cup at each end, this allows the suspension arm and upright to flex a little more than an upper arm would.
- Can Motor íV Silver Can Motor- Stamped Motor --Refers to budget electric motors, such as MABUCHI motors, that have the endbell permanently attached to the motor can. Can motors are usually higher turn motors (in the 20T+ range), are not rebuildable and?do not have adjustable timing. Can motors are common budget RTR fare, and may be referred to as 'stamped' motors.
- Cap Head --A screw with a thick cylindrical head. This is usually used in high torque applications where the extra material on the head prevents stripping. Cap heads are common with hex and torx screws, but virtually non existent with phillips or flathead screws.
- Cap Spring --The spring on flip top fuel tanks that causes the lid to 'snap' closed after fueling. Not only does this aid in faster fueling and prevent air leaks, but it also makes sure that the next time you go wheels up you won't end up with a pool of fuel in your body.
- Capacitor --An electronic unit that acts much like a battery - it stores excess electrical energy during off time, then releases it when needed. Capacitors are commonly found on ESC's (power capacitors) and electric motors to help reduce heat and increase 'punch'. The larger the capacitor, the more energy it can store, wich results in less punch but a longer comm life. Smaller capacitors increase punch (as well as battery and motor heat). Most ESC manufacturers recommend 3 capacitors on an electric motor to help reduce radio interference (glitching) - in the olden days, you would need to solder these on yourself, but today most motors come with surface mounted capacitors already installed (send all 'thank you' letters to the motor manufacturer of your choice).
- Captured (ROD) End --The ends for turnbuckles or threaded rods, usually used on off road models where abuse is common. Captured ends work similar to ball cups, except that the ends sport a hole, instead of a cup, that a metal ball snaps into. A bolt is passed through a hole in the ball, fastening the end to the mounting location. This allows the captured end to pivot much like a ball and cup system, yet the end won't pop off under stress.
- Car Stand --Simply, this is something a RC car will be on while work is being done to it. It can be as simple as a block of wood, or as complicated as a padded rotating stand with parts bins. Another main function of a car stand is to keep the wheels off the ground while work is being done.
- Carb Barrel --The sliding or rotating cylinder inside a carb body that regulates the amount of air and fuel that is introduced into the induction port. As the throttle is increased, the barrel either slides open (for slide carbs) or rotates and exposes more of a central hole (for rotary carbs) to allow more air to enter. At the same time, a needle is moved away from the metering jet to allow more fuel to enter (even rotary carbs will move a bit to the side as throttle is increased to open this needle).
- Carb Restrictor íV Restrictor --This is a unit that slides into the carb, effectively reducing the size of the venturi, which reduces air intake. A restrictor is used to 'smooth' the engine's powerband for slick or loose surfaces (making the model more controllable), or to decrease fuel consumption for longer runs between refueling. Restrictors are usually only available (or included) with race bred engines.
- Carbon Fiber íVCarbon Fibre -?CF --A super light, super strong exotic material made from a 'weave' of carbon compounds. Carbon fiber has a distinctive 'checkerboard' appearance that has been scientifically proven to cause drooling in RC addicts. Carbon fiber is commonly used for RC chassis and shock tower applications - don't forget to 'seal' the edges with CA to help prevent splintering.
- Carburetor --Called ""carb"" for short. The mechanism on an engine that controls the ratio of fuel and air that enters the engine. There are different types of carburetors:
Barrel Carburetor: the standard model engine carburetor, carried over from airplane engines when they were adapted for car use. For most hobbyists and racers this type of carburetor is fine, because it is simple to install and adjust. The throttle servo turns a ""barrel"", which has a hole through it, and this controls the amount of air going into the engine. A needle valve on the carburetor controls the amount of fuel going into the engine.
Slide Carburetor: a highly modified, car-specific type of carb that has the barrel of the carb slide along its axis, instead of turning. This provides a quicker response at the expense of a complicated set-up procedure. This type of carb will benefit a small number of racers and is not suggested for casual hobbyists. Two or three needle valves control the fuel intake at different RPM ranges.
- Case - ( 1 ) Gear --An enclosure designed to contain and protect the gears on a RC model, such as a tranny case or diff case. The case can be disassembled to access the gears inside.
- Case - ( 2 ) Transport --A durable box or bag that is used to protect a model or delicate electronics during transport. Many cases are available, ranging from multi compartment model bags to foam lined, aluminum transmitter cases.
- Case - ( 3 ) Wreck --This refers to landing a model poorly after a jump, resulting in a wreck.
- Caster - Caster Angle ?--This affects straight line stability, chassis lean, and the tire's contact patch while cornering. Caster is the angle of the suspension arms or kingpins in relation to the chassis, and is most commonly adjusted on the front suspension. For RC, positive (+) caster is always used, meaning the arms or kingpins are leaned back, thus the tires are 'trailing' behind the centerline of the suspension. This enables the wheels to 'self center', much like the front wheels on a shopping cart. Less caster results in more steering while entering a corner, but less steering on exit. More caster results in less steering while entering a corner, but more steering on exit. On pillow ball (A arm or double wishbone) models, caster is usually adjusted using hingepin spacers to move the arms forward (more caster) or back (less caster). With C hub models, the C hubs are swapped to alter caster. Raising the leading edge of an arm or tilting the kingpin back increases caster. Altering caster also affects the camber setting since it rotates the hub - increasing caster decreases the camber of that wheel (and visa versa). Note that less caster helps the inside tires stay planted while cornering, while more caster increases straight line stability.
- Caster Block --A type of hub carrier, resembling a C hub carrier, that is used on some on road models to adjust caster settings. Caster blocks are often available in a variety of caster degree settings (usually determined by the location of the mounting point for the lower suspension arm). Changing caster blocks alters the caster setting.
- Cell --Another term for batteries, but in a singular reference (such as, ""look at this cell), this generally refers to the nickel-cadmium or nickel-metal hydride batteries used in RC cars.
- Cell Limit - Input Voltage --The number of batteries a speed controller can safely handle. This is usually expressed as the number of cells (i.e. 1 - 8 cells or 2S LiPo) or in voltage (i.e. 1.2V to 9.6V). The more you go over this rating, the better the chances that you will fry your ESC.
- Centax Clutch --A type of clutch system used on some multi-speed nitro models. Instead of the clutchbell moving an integrated gear, it is equipped with 2 or more independent gears, representing 1st, 2nd, and 3rd gear (if used). This eliminates the need for a transmission to shift gears by essentially putting the tranny on the clutchbell. These gears can be interchanged (to alter the gear ratio), and / or independently adjusted to alter shift points.
- Center (SERVO) --When installing a servo, it must be centered to insure equal rotation from left to right. To center a servo, plug it in to the receiver and power up the radio system with all trims, ATL, and EPA set at 0 on the transmitter (radio). It may help to mark this setting on the servo spline and case for future reference. Once the servo is centered, the servo arm can be installed.
- Center Balance Port --A type of balance port on lithium batteries that uses a single bullet type plug. This type of balance port monitors difference in voltage between the positive (+) terminal and the balance port, and the negative (-) terminal and the balance port to determine if the cells are balanced. This is the most common style of balance port used for RC car batts.
- Center Diff - Center Differential --This is simply a differential that transfers power between the front and rear wheels of a 4WD model, much like a diff transfers power between the left and right wheels. A center diff allows the user to alter the traction between the front and rear of a model (such as 60% - 40%). Just like any diff, center diffs are tunable, and are subject to diff unloading.
- Center of Gravity --can be shortened to CG or cg. A point in space that represents the central point of a car's mass. If you don't race or are just starting, the only thing you need to know about center of gravity is that if you have a high CG the car or truck will be easier to tip over in tight turns, especially at high speed. As you get more experienced in racing, you will learn to keep everything on the car or truck as low as possible to enhance handling.
- Charge - Battery Charge --An electrical device used to charge rechargeable batteries. Chargers come in a variety of configurations, depending on the need. Many chargers are limited to certain types of batteries (such as NiCad, NiMH, or LiPo), or a certain number of cells. Chargers range in complexity from simple adapters that plug directly into an outlet (overnight wall chargers) to Multi function units that discharge, condition, charge, peak, then maintain your cells according to your settings. There is probably even a charger out there that will nuke your Hot Pocket while you wait for your cells to peak.
- Charge Rate - C - ( 1 ) Battery Label --With NiMH and NiCad cells, this refers to how quickly the cell was charged while matching - cells are usually charged at a 5A (amp) to 6A rate. A higher charge rate increases the AV/V rating (average voltage), but reduces the SEC rating (run time).
- Charge Rate - C - ( 2 ) Charger --Refers to the amperage that a battery pack is charged at. This is usually listed as 1C, 2C, 3C, ect. This is directly dependent on the pack's capacity. To find the charge rate for a battery pack, simply divide the capacity (mAh) by 1000, thus a 4800 mAh pack would have a charge rate of 4.8 amps (4800 / 1000). Charging this pack at 1C would charge it at 4.8 amps, while charging it at 2C would charge it at 9.6 amps (4.8 x 2). Charging a pack at a higher charge rate (such as 2C or 3C) will peak the pack faster and increase initial current, but may drastically reduce the pack's cycle count. Keep a close eye on any pack being charged at 2C or higher (especially LiPo packs), as a higher charge rate results in higher temps. Likewise, definitely use a LiPo sach and battery balancer while charging at higher charge rates (better to be safe than on fire). Some may charge packs at up to 5C, which is well on the extreme side.
- Charger Capacity --This simply states the maximum number of cells a battery charger can charge at on time. This may be expressed in cells (i.e. 1 - 8 cells or 2S2P LiPo) or in milliamp hours (i.e. 100 to 4800 Mah).
- Charging Jack --A plug that is attached to the battery or on/off switch that allows the battery to be charged onboard without disconnecting it. Be sure the on/off switch is in the 'off' position before charging a battery through a charging jack.
- Chassis --?The foundation of an RC car, this is the main portion of the car that everything attaches to. It can be made from woven graphite, molded plastic composites or aluminum. Normally it is flat with lightening holes cut into it but if molded from plastics it can have bent-up sides and other features.
- Chassis Brace --A brace (or braces) that attach to either the bulkhead(s) and chassis, or span from the front bulkhead to the rear bulkhead (possibly also attaching to the chassis in the center). These braces may be adjustable rods or turnbuckles, or composite, plastic, or machined alloy components. Chassis braces add rigidity to the chassis, especially on long wheelbase models, helping to reduce front to rear flex.
- Circle Cutter --A tool used to cut circles in lexan bodies, such as for fender wells or cooling holes. This works like a compass, using a center point with a blade that moves at adjustable distances around it.
- Circuit Board --Even though you may not see them, circuit boards are an integral part of RC - they reside in the transmitters, receivers, ESC's, servos, and even some motors. These basically contain all the electrical connections and programming needed to make an RC car do it's thing. There are a few simple rules to consider when dealing with circuit boards - don't get them wet, treat them gingerly, and, unless you are a mad skilled electrical engineer, don't try to modify them.
- Clamping Wheel Hex --This is a wheel hex that uses a setscrew to clamp or hold it to the axle. This insures that the hex won't fall off when the wheel is removed.
- Class --In radio controlled car racing, the ""class"" refers to the type of car you have, and what ""class"" it would race in. In general, there are Touring Car, Mini, 2WD buggies, 2WD trucks, 4WD buggies, Rally, Super-Size, Oval Pan Car, 1/10th scale Pan Car, 1/12th scale Pan Car and a couple of other classes. These classes are further divided by the mode of power, either Electric or Nitro. The most popular classes right now are electric and Nitro Touring Car, and electric 2WD buggy. When deciding what type of kit you want to get for your first RC kit, try to decide what type of kit and what type of power source you will get, this will narrow your selections down considerably!
- Closed Cell Foam --A type of foam that is molded, normally used in RC for molded inner foams. More expensive than open cell foam, it holds its shape better and if molded it does not move back and forth on a wheel.
- Closed Endbell Motor --Refers to an electric motor with integrated brushes. The brushes and brush springs are not accessible on the endbell, and can't be replaced or changed. This type of motor is common RTR fare.
- Clunk --This is most common on RC aircraft, but may occasionally be found on RC cars as well. A clunk is a heavy weight attached to the end of the fuel line inside a fuel tank that helps keep the line in the fuel at all times, even if the model is upside down.
- Clutch (Type) 2 SPEED TRANSMISSION --Refers to a 2 speed tranny that uses spring loaded shoes to engage second gear once a certain RPM is reached. Clutch type 2 speeds tend to be heavier than pawl type 2 speeds, but can handle higher loads and engage much softer, which is perfect for off road or low traction surfaces. The engagement point is adjusted by spring tension - more tension = later (harder) engagement, while less tension = sooner (softer) engagement.
- Clutch Bell --The equivalent of a pinion gear on a nitro engine, the clutch bell is on the end of the crank shaft and connects with the car's spur gear(s). In a cutaway view, the clutch bell looks like a bell, which is where it gets the name. Inside the hollow part of the clutch bell are the clutch shoes, which will expand with engine RPMs to come in contact with the clutch bell, making it spin. This makes the spur gear turn, and the car moves forward!
- Clutch Shoes --A spring loaded 'wedge' attached to the flywheel of a nitro engine. Increasing the engines RPM causes the shoes to open and engage the clutch bell. The point in the RPM range where the the shoes actually open is regulated by the clutch springs. A clutch consists of 2 or more clutch shoes working in unison. Clutch shoes come in a variety of compounds, such as, aluminum, delrin, or composite materials, to help fine tune their 'grabbing' power - many racers combine different clutch shoes to further tune engagement. Clutch shoes are usually attached to the flywheel via the clutch pins.
- Clutch Spring --The springs that regulate when the clutch shoes 'open' to engage the clutch bell. Depending on the type of clutch. there may be individual springs for each shoe, or a single spring that wraps around all of the shoes. Either way, softer (lighter) springs engage the clutch bell early in the engines RPM range, resulting in a smoother acceleration curve, wich results in better control on low bite (loose) surfaces. Heavier (stiffer) springs allow the shoes to engage later in the engine's RPMs, resulting in a harder launch (if you're running an off road model, think of wheelies on demand if the traction is good, or spinouts if the traction is loose).
- Clutch- Clutch Assembly --Refers to the entire clutch system of a nitro engine, including the; flywheel, clutch springs, clutch shoes, and clutch bell. Most clutches are shoe type, which use 'wedges' supported by springs to engage the clutchbell once a certain RPM is reached. Some clutches are ball type, wich uses balls that press against a pad to engage the clutchbell. Shoe type clutches are adjusted by altering shoe material or spring strength, while ball type clutches are externally adjustable by adjusting spring rate with the turn of setscrews.
- Cog - Cogging --Results when one of the comm segments (poles) of a brushed electric motor isn't charged by the brushes, causing a dead spot in the energizing cycle. This is evident by 'stuttering', and is commonly caused by brushes that are too narrow. All brushed motors have some amount of cogging (most motors only energize the comm about 90% of the time), but less cogging means smoother acceleration and coasting. Brushless motors a notorious for cogging at low speeds.
- Comm Lathe íV Commutator Lathe --A machine used to true the commutator of an electric motor. The armature is chucked into the lathe, then a motor spins it as a cutting blade is passed back and forth across the comm at increasing depths until all low spots are eliminated. This is referred to as 'cutting a comm"".
- Compound --When talking about tires, the firmer (harder) the compound, the longer life it will have, but it won't have as much grip as a softer tire would. Most racers use a firm compound tire as the racing surface heats up during the day. A softer compound tire is best used when the track is cool, such as in the morning or late evening. Examples of these compounds include our 20R tires (our softest), 23R, 27R (medium), 33R and 35R (our firmest).
- Con Rod íV Connecting Rod --The part in a nitro or gas engine that 'connects' the piston to the crankshaft. The con rod usually has oiling holes where it is connected to the crank or wrist pin to aid in lubrication, and may have the edges beveled (knife edged) for 2 stroke engines to reduce 'fuel drag'. A side note - the term 'hot rod' refers to an engine that has been modified to produce so much torque that the force can either break the con rod or fuse it's bushings.
- Connector --A plug or clip that allows the electrical wires of one component to be joined with the wires of another component, such as connecting an ESC to a battery pack. This allows the components to be easily separated and re-connected.
- Constant Velocity Axle - CVA --A type of driveshaft or axle with pivoting, ball style joints that provide zero backlash. CVAs are rebuildable, not to mention being much smoother than dogbones. CVAs consist of the driveshaft, axle, retaining collar, pin, and setscrew. CVA is just another name for CVD, but without the trademark.
- Constant Velocity Drive - CVD --A type of driveshaft or axle with pivoting, ball style joints that provide zero backlash. CVD's are rebuildable, not to mention being much smoother than dogbones. CVDs consist of the driveshaft, axle, retaining collar, pin, and setscrew. CVD is a trademark of MIP.
- Contact Patch --The ""footprint"" of the car's tire, or the area of the tire that comes in contact with the ground at any given moment. Affected by camber, turning and acceleration. A wider contact patch (from wider wheels) does NOT mean you will automatically get more traction.
- Control Arm --Refers to an upper suspension arm or link that allows the adjustment of camber and / or roll center. For C hub suspensions, this is usually a turnbuckle or threaded rod, while pillow ball suspensions commonly use an upper A arm.
- Control Wire --The unit inside a servo that receives pulses of various lengths from the receiver. These pulses determine where the output shaft of the servo should move to.
- Cooling Hole (BODY) --A hole cut in the body of a nitro model to increase air flow over the engine, increasing cooling capacity. The hole is usually cut in the windshield. Many sanctioned racing organizations have a 2"" diameter limit for cooling holes, which happens to be the same size as a 1/10 sedan rim (can you say, 'perfectly circular cooling hole')?
- Cooling Vent (Electric Motor) --Electric motors have a variety of cooling vents on the side of the can or ends. These vents help to introduce air into the motor and increase efficiency thru cooling. Vents on the side of the can are great for inspecting the comm or cleaning with motor spray. Note that the location and size of cooling vents can alter an electric motor's magnetic field. Put the magnifying glass away - you probably won't find a cooling vent on a brushless motor (or even some coreless motors or micro motors).
- Coreless (Motor) --A type of electric motor that has a central magnet surrounded by wires formed in a cylindrical or bell shape. This set up eliminates the 'notchy' feel caused by the split magnets of common electric motors, providing smoother response. Coreless motors also tend to be lighter than other motors, and commonly offer more torque than traditional cored motors.. Coreless motors are commonly used in servos as well as micro drive motor applications.
- Counterbalance --The wedge shaped mass on the back of the crank directly opposite of the con rod journal. The counterbalance helps the crank maintain momentum throughout the stroke cycle.
- Countersunk Screw íV Taper Head Screw --A screw with a head that tapers outward from the shaft, making it flush when tightened into mating parts. Usually used on the underside of a model's chassis to prevent 'hang ups' with the running surface or where clearance is an issue.
- Countersunk Washer --A thick washer with a beveled indentation on one side designed to fit taper head screws. This allows taper head screws to be used as a fastener on flat surfaces.
- Coupe --In general terms, this refers to a 2-door car. Some RC touring car body manufacturers, like HPI, offer bodies that represent full-size coupe cars.
- Coupler (Exhaust) --A flexible, silicone tube that connects the header to the pipe on a nitro engine. The coupler is commonly held in place with zip ties, and allows the pipe and header to flex during impacts without damaging the parts.
- Crank Bearing --The bearings inside the block of a nitro engine that support the crank shaft. These bearings are heavy duty, and the front crank bearing is sealed (though some fuel leakage through the front bearing is common).
- Crank Bore --Refers to the inside diameter of the crank's induction port.
- Crank Journal --The smooth part of the crank inside the engine that rides on the crank bearings.
- Crank Shaft --A part of a Nitro engine that is rotated by the piston, providing circular motion to the outer part of the crank shaft, which is attached to the flywheel and clutch shoes.
- Crankcase - Block --Refers to the outer case of a nitro engine, usually molded from a soft, pot metal-like material. The crankcase houses all of the engines internals (including the crank), and has tabs to mount the engine to the engine mount. As can be expected, the size of the crankcase varies depending upon engine displacement, but is usually delegated to either a small block (.12 to .20) or big block (.21+).
- Critical Setting --The general, ball park setting for the needle valves of a nitro engine. This setting is used to get a new engine started or to reset the settings of an engine that is so far out of tune it wont start. The critical setting is listed as a number of turns out from the needle valve's bottomed out position.
- Crown (Armature) --The outer, curved side of an armature, or depth of the curve as compared to the 'cavity'. The overall thickness of the crown affects a motor's magnetic field (i.e. RPM and torque). Some crowns may be 'grooved' (with a channel in the crown parallel to the motor shaft) to adjust the magnetic field of the motor, or may be 'stepped' (thinner on the leading edge and thicker on the trailing edge) to advance timing and increase RPMs.
- Crunch --The sound of a RC model hitting an immovable object at high speeds.
- Crystal - XTAL --Refers to the small microchips used in pairs with many radio systems (namely AM and FM). There is a crystal in the transmitter (TX) and a crystal in the receiver (RX). The crystals are tuned to a unique frequency, allowing them to communicate with each other while 'ignoring' signals from other frequencies. Only crystals on the same frequency can communicate with each other. With some radios, the module may need to be replaced in transmitter to change frequencies, but the crystal itself can usually be exchanged on the receiver. Some radios and receivers may use a 'synthesized crystal' system that allows the user to change frequencies by simply turning a dial. Note that a crystal based radio system uses 2 distinct crystals - the RX (receiver) crystal, and the TX (transmitter) crystal. The two are not interchangeable. Don't tear apart your 2.4 GHz radio system looking for crystals - you won't find any.
- Current Limiter --An adjustment available on some ESCs that allows the user to select the maximum initial current available when accelerating. Lowering the initial current reduces 'punch', which makes this setting useful for reducing wheelspin during low traction applications. Current limiter may also be referred to as an 'electronic slipper clutch'.
- Cutoff- Cutoff Voltage (Battery Label) --Refers to the voltage where the discharge cycle was ended during the factory rating of a cell or battery pack. A lower cutoff voltage usually equals longer run times and a minimal increase in voltage per cell. The industry standard for cutoff is .90V (5.4V for a 6 cell pack), but some higher capacity cells (3800+ Mah) may use a lower cutoff.
- Cutting Brake --An option on some rock crawlers that allows the driver to independently brake either the left or right rear wheel from the transmitter. This allows the model to pivot around the braked wheel and greatly reduce the turning radius. Cutting brakes require additional or optional equipment on most crawlers - most notably servos and alternate diff housings or gears.
- CVD --An abbreviation for Constant Velocity Drive. ""CVD"" is a trademark of MIP (Moore's Ideal Products, Inc.). MIP offers their CVD universal dogbones for many RC kits, and their CVD's are featured as standard equipment on the RS4 Pro 2, Nitro MT Racer and RS4 Pro 3. The main features of the MIP CVD's are their improved efficiency over standard universal dogbones, ability to be rebuilt if an axle or ""bone"" is bent or damaged and ease of finding replacement parts. The MIP website is www.miponline.com.?
- Cycle --Refers to a single charge and discharge use of a battery pack or cell, or to repeated charges and discharges used to condition batteries and erase the memory common with NICADS.
- Cycle Count --Refers to the number of times a battery pack or cell can be charged and discharged (cycled) before losing performance.